Workshop B2: Participatory Planning and Local Governance
Chaired by Patricia Romero-Lankao
Presenting speakers :
【To understand the complexity of WEF nexus system】
At the local level of WEF in Beppu, a finding of the WEF nexus shows that changes in the heat environment caused by hot spring drainage water from resorts and power generation affect river ecosystems, including non-native Tilapia habitat. As for the interlinkages between groundwater and fishery production, physical, chemical and biological surveys have been conducted at four project sites in Japan. The results obtained to date show that inputs of nutritional matters of terrestrial origin through submarine groundwater increase biological production and biodiversity in coastal areas.
【Developing methods for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary studies】
As a site-specific case study, in Obama, Beppu and Otsuchi, we identified local nexus stakeholders and their interests. We also conducted comparative study between Obama and California based on the questionnaire survey at the stakeholder meeting. At a regional scale, we conducted an online survey to identify differences in public attitudes towards geothermal power and hot springs focusing on general public living in Japan, the Philippines and Indonesia.
We are also developing and using various integrated methods to address the WEF nexus. We classified the integrated methods as qualitative and quantitative that contribute to both interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research. Qualitative methods that we analysed consisted of Questionnaire Surveys, Ontology Engineering and Integrated Map, while quantitative methods included Physical Models, Benefit-cost analysis (BCA), Integrated Indices, and Optimization Management Models based on case studies from research sites in Japan and the Philippines. We discovered and identified how to use each method.
This study seeks to assess areas of energy efficiency optimization in drinking water utilities in Kenya. The first step will be to develop a database on energy consumption at different stages of water production and change in demand over time. This is a key information gap lacking among cities especially in developing countries. A multi-model analysis, using MESSAGE (A modelling framework for medium- to long-term energy system planning, energy policy analysis, and scenario development) will be applied to develop scenarios based on development pathways adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Water and energy narratives will be tested using three development pathways namely a sustainable development, business-as-usual and a road divided. Using back-casting technique, the scenarios will be presented to the utilities to assess their energy consumption and optimization plan for the future considering the projected change in drivers of water supply (climate change, land use change, decline in renewable water supplies) and demand (population change, urbanization, lifestyle, increased demand for water-intensive diets) which have been moving in opposite direction and hence affecting sustainable growth. It is expected that, towards the completion of study, simple decision management tools will be developed to guide in energy optimization and utilities encouraged to benchmark their energy consumption and each utility develop water safety plans.
This paper presents the development and application of an innovative governance instrument that facilitates the profitable cooperation between different actors and currently enables the implementation of a WEF solution for the degraded Kisumu Bay in Kenya.
Anthropogenic pressures pushed the once productive bay waters into a degraded system dominated by nuisance macrophytes (water hyacinths) and blue green algae, affecting water intake, lake transport, fisheries and tourism. Consequently, health conditions deteriorated markedly in the whole region, ampering further sectoral growth.
To address these and similar ecosystem-livelihood challenges in Kenya, a cooperative partnership was set-up at national level. This new governance instrument aims at supporting local actors with system knowledge and jointly establishes local partnerships with public and private actors, including academia and NGOs, to deliver tangible results for both ecosystems, and local economies and livelihoods. Captured lessons and financial returns from local efforts are leveraged by the cooperative partnership to allow up-scaling and replication in other systems. Kisumu Bay is one of the systems in which the cooperative partnership is active.
One potential win-win solution, identified together with local actors to improve Kisumu Bay, is the production of biofuels from waterhyacinth. By removing hyacinths from the bay at large scale, fisheries possibilities as well as existing shore-developments are improved. The locally produced and sold biofuel allows for affordable and clean cooking, and reduces the need to deforest in a much wider area. This solution can work because all parties involved (communities, corporates, NGOs, government, scientists) benefit from the solution.
The local solution was made possible because of the two level approach of the partnership. The national-level cooperative partnership took the initiative to improve the bay, brought actors together and supported them with system knowledge, while being aware that neither a ready-made solution, nor the governance structure to implement it, were available at the start. The hyacinth-biofuel case taught the partnership about the structural functioning at the local level, and these concepts can now be up-scaled and replicated in other pressured systems, through the cooperative partnership. The main lessons for the governance instrument are: flexibility, up and back scaling of efforts and investments based on needs, and the creation of incentives for all parties involved. This open and long-term (planned for 17 years) partnership provides an innovative governance instrument which supports the operationalization of long-lasting public-private partnerships that hold themselves accountable for delivering tangible returns of human, natural and economic investments through a dynamic but perpetual evidence-based and learning-by-doing reconciliation of different sector interests.
Part of this 3-year strategy was the development of a so-called integrated water resources management plan and training and awareness activities for local water actors and inhabitants that would have to work with the plan in the future. Another important element of the project proposal was the establishment of local watershed committees according to Nicaraguan and Handuran law that aim to guide the implementation ofthe previously mentioned plan. A final part of the strategy consisted of opportunities for exchange of knowledge and experiences between the two municipalities, across Central America, and between Central America and Europe.
The action included the generation of updated technical information concerning geology, hydrology, hydrogeological and soil sciences elaborated by Universities, and information generated through the installation of a watershed monitoring center run by the Watersheds Committee in collaboration with local actors which bring their own experience and expertise.
The main lessons derived from this project are the following: Watershed management is not just working with water but implies working in different topics such as food security, energy, waste management, health, education, economy, territorial organization, risk management and climate change. Climate change has a high impact on water resources for all its use, so it is essential to consider both, availability and quality of water, watershed vulnerability, effect and measures to be considered as part of adaptation to Climate Change strategy. The promotion of a local participative and democratic mechanism around water management has been fundamental to go beyond a fragmentation of actors and interest that prevent a harmonized and integrated planning, converting it in responsibilities and sustainable development.
While the increasing use of the term “Nexus” is a rather new phenomenon, the “interlinkages across sectors are most often the realities of the every day lives of several people who (…) would most certainly witness the challenges of its operationalization” (Srivastanva et Mehta, 2014). Family farmers around the world offer clear illustration to that assertion. The contribution of family farms to food security, sustainable use of natural resources and social development has been gaining global attention recently. It is in this vain that the United Nations General Assembly declared 2014 the International Year of Family Farming and rose attention on the relevance of as well as on the difficulties faced by family farmers.
Central aim of the present study is to assess strategies and instruments by means of which the integrative challenges of the WFE-‐Nexus can be tackled at family farms and by family farmers. For that aim the research focuses on experiences from initiatives in Colombia, which have been developing and promoting sustainable family farming practices. While the WFE-‐Nexus was
(and are) not part of the motivations or goals of those initiatives, the farming systems they promote aim at integrating the production of food, energy and raw materials while also providing soil, water and climate protection services and social inclusion. Therefore, the social and technical innovations they have been developing offer valuable indications on how to deal with the integrative challenges of the sustainable management of the WFE-‐Nexus.
The outlined study will make part of the outcomes from a transdisciplinary (Td) processes, which has been initiated by the author in close cooperation with two Colombian partners: The Association of Indigenous and Peasant Producers of Riosucio (Asproinca) and the Colombian Network for energy from biomass (RedBioCOL). The processes was organized around one case-based Mutual Learning Session (cbMLS). This is a Td format that creates spaces for the integration of knowledge from different epistemic and experimental capacities in order to generate knowledge that is socially robust, i.e., knowledge that can be understood, discussed, and processed by all parties involved and that serves societal transformation.
The proposed article will present a systematic description of strategies and instruments applied by the initiatives involved in the Td process, which were assessed as effective in achieving integration challenges described before. Moreover, we will discuss on the value of those empirical findings for advancing the conceptualization and realization of decentralized/bottom-‐up governance approaches of the WFE-‐Nexus.
Srivastava S., Mehta, L. (2014): Not Another Nexus? Critical Thinking on the New Security Convergence in Energy, Food, Climate and Water. STEPS Working Paper 75, STEPS Centre, Brighton
Target audience: We invite interested participants from all disciplines and at all career stages specially early stage PhD student and postdocs.
Date and time: Jun 15th, 15:45 – 17:30
Location: ZUK, Osnabrück, Room 3
- Patricia Romero-Lankao